The mineral components of travertine are mainly calcite and aragonite; hard, dense, fine crystalline, massive, hollow or solid spherical, thick or thin layer, with fiber or concentric structure. Calcium body morphology is highly variable, common travertine cones, mounds, fans, stalactites and so on. The “calcium stone forest” in the Longmar Hot Springs area of the northern Tibetan Plateau is unrivaled, and the fine and high travertine column is as high as 7 meters.
Travertine is generally a low temperature geothermal display. Calcium minerals are most common with calcite. When the crystallization rate is fast, the aragonite type travertine can be produced. The increase of strontium ion concentration in spring water will be beneficial to the formation of aragonite travertine, while alkali metal chloride is not conducive to the formation of aragonite. High temperature hot springs generally precipitate aragonite, but if carbon dioxide does not escape in a large amount, only calcite is formed. No gangue was found in natural travertine. The activity of calcium algae also has a certain influence on the formation of travertine.